This integration is powered by Singer's Postgres tap and certified by Stitch. Check out and contribute to the repo on GitHub.
For support, contact Stitch support.
Important: PostgreSQL as an input data source
This article describes how to connect PostgreSQL as an input data source.
If you want to connect a PostgreSQL instance as a destination, refer to the Connecting a Self-Hosted PostgreSQL Destination guide.
PostgreSQL integration summary
This version (v2) of Stitch’s PostgreSQL integration optimizes replication by utilizing Avro schemas to write and validate data, thereby reducing the amount of time spent on data extraction and preparation. Compared to previous versions of the PostgreSQL integration, this version boasts increased performance and overall reduced replication time.
Notable improvements and changes in this version also include:
- Expanded data type support. This version supports additional PostgreSQL data types. Refer to the PostgreSQL data types documentation for more info.
- Improved handling of
HSTOREdata types. In previous versions, these data types were treated as strings. This version will send them to your destination as JSON objects, which may result in de-nesting.
- Improved handling of schema changes in tables using Log-based Incremental Replication. Adding and removing columns in these tables will no longer cause extraction errors. Note: This limitation still applies to version 1.
Note: The following features aren’t fully supported, but are being worked on:
- Arrays of
- Support for some flavors of PostgreSQL. We’re in the process of testing this version of our integration with other flavors of PostgreSQL, including Amazon Aurora and Amazon RDS.
To get a look at how this version compares to the previous version of PostgreSQL, refer to the PostgreSQL version comparison documentation.
PostgreSQL feature snapshot
A high-level look at Stitch's PostgreSQL (v2) integration, including release status, useful links, and the features supported in Stitch.
Released on March 5, 2021
9.3+; 9.4+ for binlog
|Singer GitHub repository||
|Configurable Replication Methods||
|Full Table Replication||
Supported, with prerequisites
PostgreSQL setup requirements
To set up PostgreSQL in Stitch, you need:
SUPERUSERprivilege. Either privilege is required to create a database user for Stitch.
If using Log-based Replication, you’ll need:
- A database running PostgreSQL 9.4 or greater Earlier versions of PostgreSQL do not include logical replication functionality, which is required for Log-based Replication.
SUPERUSERprivilege. If using logical replication, this is required to define the appropriate server settings.
- To connect to the master instance. Log-based replication will only work on master instances due to a feature gap in PostgreSQL 10. Based on their forums, PostgreSQL is working on adding support for using logical replication on a read replica to a future version.
To check for TOASTed tables and columns. TOASTed tables and columns in your PostgreSQL database can cause the following issues when using Log-Based Replication:
no known snapshoterrors, or
- Inaccurate data replication.
Refer to the PostgreSQL documentation for more information on what TOAST is and how to identify TOASTed tables and columns in your database.
If you’re not using Log-based Replication, you’ll need:
- A database running PostgreSQL 9.3.x or greater. PostgreSQL 9.3.x is the minimum version Stitch supports for PostgreSQL integrations.
- To verify if the database is a read replica, or follower. While we always recommend connecting a replica over a production database, this also means you may need to verify some of its settings - specifically the
max_standby_archive_delaysettings - before connecting it to Stitch. We recommend setting these parameters to 8-12 hours for an initial replication job, and then decreasing them afterwards.
Step 1: Configure database connection settings
In this step, you’ll configure the database server to allow traffic from Stitch to access it. There are two ways to connect your database:
- A direct connection will work if your database is publicly accessible.
- An SSH tunnel is required if your database isn’t publicly accessible. This method uses a publicly accessible instance, or an SSH server, to act as an intermediary between Stitch and your database. The SSH server will forward traffic from Stitch through an encrypted tunnel to the private database.
Click the option you’re using below and follow the instructions.
For the connection to be successful, you’ll need to configure your firewall to allow access from our IP addresses.
The IP addresses you’ll whitelist depend on the Data pipeline region your account is in.
- Sign into your Stitch account, if you haven’t already.
- Click User menu (your icon) > Manage Account Settings and locate the Data pipeline region section to verify your account’s region.
Locate the list of IP addresses for your region:
- Whitelist the appropriate IP addresses.
- Follow the steps in the Setting up an SSH Tunnel for a database connection guide to set up an SSH tunnel for PostgreSQL.
- Complete the steps in this guide after the SSH setup is complete.
Step 2: Create a Stitch database user
Next, you’ll create a dedicated database user for Stitch. This will ensure Stitch is visible in any logs or audits, and allow you to maintain your privilege hierarchy.
Your organization may require a different process, but the simplest way to create this user is to execute the following query when logged into the PostgreSQL database as a user with the right to grant privileges.
Note: The user performing this step should also own the schema(s) that Stitch is being granted access to.
- Log into your database.
Create the database user, replacing
<stitch_username>with the name of the database user and
<password>with a password:
CREATE USER <stitch_username> WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD '<password>';
Grant the database user
CONNECTprivileges to the database, replacing
<database_name>with the name of a database you want to connect Stitch to:
GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE <database_name> TO <stitch_username>;
Grant the database user schema usage privileges, replacing
<schema_name>with the name of a schema you want to replicate data from:
GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <stitch_username>;
Grant the database user
SELECTprivileges by running this command for every table you want to replicate:
GRANT SELECT ON <schema_name>.<table_name> TO <stitch_username>;
Limiting access to only the tables you want to replicate ensures that the integration can complete discovery (a structure sync) in a timely manner. If you encounter issues in Stitch where tables aren’t displaying, try limiting the Stitch database user’s table access.
Alter the schema’s default privileges to grant
SELECTprivileges on tables to the database user. This is required to ensure that objects created in the schema after connecting to Stitch will remain accessible to the
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES IN SCHEMA <schema_name> GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO <stitch_username>;
- If you want to replicate data from multiple databases or schemas, repeat steps 3 - 6 as needed.
Important: Using Log-based Incremental Replication
See the Privileges list tab for an explanation of why these permissions are required by Stitch.
In the table below are the database user privileges Stitch requires to connect to and replicate data from a PostgreSQL database.
|Privilege name||Reason for requirement|
Required to connect successfully to the specified database.
Required to access the objects contained in the specified schema.
Required to select rows from tables in the specified schema.
|ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES||
Required to ensure that objects created in the schema after connecting to Stitch will be accessible by the Stitch database user.
Step 3: Configure Log-based Incremental Replication
Important: Log-based Replication requirements
Log-based Replication for PostgreSQL-based databases requires:
A PostgreSQL database running PostgreSQL version 9.4.x or greater. Earlier versions of PostgreSQL do not include logical replication functionality, which is required for Log-based Replication.
A connection to the master instance. Log-based replication will only work on master instances due to a feature gap in PostgreSQL 10. Based on their forums, PostgreSQL is working on adding support for using logical replication on a read replica to a future version.
Until this feature is released, you can connect Stitch to the master instance and use Log-based Replication, or connect to a read replica and use Key-based Incremental Replication.
While Log-based Incremental Replication is the most accurate and efficient method of replication, using this replication method may, at times, require manual intervention or impact the source database’s performance. Refer to the Log-based Incremental Replication documentation for more info.
You can also use one of Stitch’s other Replication Methods, which don’t require any database configuration. Replication Methods can be changed at any time.
In this section:
Step 3.1: Install the wal2json plugin
To use Log-based Replication for your PostgreSQL integration, you must install the wal2json plugin. The wal2json plugin outputs JSON objects for logical decoding, which Stitch then uses to perform Log-based Replication.
Steps for installing the plugin vary depending on your operating system. Instructions for each operating system type are in the wal2json’s GitHub repository:
After you’ve installed the plugin, you can move onto the next step.
Step 3.2: Edit the client authentication file
pg_hba.conf, this file controls how clients authenticate to the PostgreSQL database. To ensure Stitch can read the output from the wal2json plugin, you’ll need to add replication connection rules to this file. These rules translate to “Allow the Stitch user from this IP address to perform replication on all the databases it has access to.”
This step uses the Stitch IP addresses for your data pipeline region.
- Log into your PostgreSQL server as a superuser.
- Locate the
pg_hba.conffile, usually stored in the database cluster’s data directory. You can also locate this file by checking the value of the
For each Stitch IP address, add the following line to
Replace the following:
<stitch_username>with the name of the Stitch database user
<stitch_ip_address>with one of the Stitch IP addresses for your data pipeline region
host replication <stitch_username> <stitch_ip_address> md5
A rule for each IP addresses for your Stitch data pipeline region must be added to
pg_hba.conf. As Stitch can use any one of these IP addresses to connect during the extraction process, each of them must have their own replication connection rule.
Step 3.3: Edit the database configuration file
Locate the database configuration file (usually
postgresql.conf) and define the parameters as follows:
wal_level=logical max_replication_slots=5 max_wal_senders=5
max_wal_senders, we’re defaulting to a value of
5. This should be sufficient unless you have a large number of read replicas connected to the master instance.
In the table below are the names, required values, and descriptions of the server settings you must define.
Required to use Log-based Replication; available on PostgreSQL versions 9.4 and higher. Determines the level of information that is written to the write-ahead log (WAL).
A value of
Required to use Log-based Replication; available on PostgreSQL versions 9.4 and higher. Specifies the maximum number of replication slots that the server can support.
This must be greater than 1. If you have a large number of replica databases, you may want to increase the value of this parameter.
Available on PostgreSQL versions 9.4 and higher. Specifies the maximum number of concurrent connections from standby servers or streaming base backup clients (the maximum number of simultaneously running WAL sender processes).
If you have a large number of replica databases, you may want to define this setting during setup.
Step 3.4: Restart the PostgreSQL service
Step 3.5: Create a replication slot
Next, you’ll create a dedicated logical replication slot for Stitch. In PostgreSQL, a logical replication slot represents a stream of database changes that can then be replayed to a client in the order they were made on the original server. Each slot streams a sequence of changes from a single database.
Important: Replication slots and data loss
A logical replication slot should only be used by a single process OR Stitch integration. If you need to connect multiple databases to Stitch, you’ll need to create a replication slot for each database.
You risk losing data if multiple processes or Stitch integrations share a replication slot. This is because a logical slot emits a single change only once - if multiple processes or Stitch integrations share a logical slot, only the changes that occurred after the last process/integration consumed them will be received.
Note: Replication slots are specific to a given database in a cluster. If you want to connect multiple databases - whether in one integration or several - you’ll need to create a replication slot for each database.
- Log into the master database as a superuser.
wal2json, create a logical replication slot:
If you’re connecting multiple databases, you’ll need to run this command for every database you want to connect, replacing
<raw_database_name>with the name of the database:
SELECT * FROM pg_create_logical_replication_slot('stitch_<raw_database_name>', 'wal2json');
This will create a replication slot named
If you’re connecting a single database, run the following command:
SELECT * FROM pg_create_logical_replication_slot('stitch', 'wal2json');
This will create a replication slot named
Log in as the Stitch user and verify you can read from the replication slot, replacing
<replication_slot_name>with the name of the replication slot:
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pg_logical_slot_peek_changes('<replication_slot_name>', null, null);
If connecting multiple databases, you should verify that the Stitch user can read from each of the replication slots you created.
wal2json is required to use Log-based replication in Stitch for PostgreSQL-backed databases.
Step 4: Connect Stitch
In this step, you’ll complete the setup by entering the database’s connection details and defining replication settings in Stitch.
Step 4.1: Define the database connection details
- If you aren’t signed into your Stitch account, sign in now.
On the Stitch Dashboard page, click the Add Integration button.
- Locate and click the PostgreSQL icon.
Fill in the fields as follows:
Integration Name: Enter a name for the integration. This is the name that will display on the Stitch Dashboard for the integration; it’ll also be used to create the schema in your destination.
For example, the name “Stitch PostgreSQL” would create a schema called
stitch_postgresqlin the destination. Note: The schema name cannot be changed after the integration is saved.
Host (Endpoint): Enter the host address (endpoint) used by the PostgreSQL instance. For example: This could be a network address such as
18.104.22.168, or a server endpoint like
Port: Enter the port used by the PostgreSQL instance. The default is
Username: Enter the Stitch PostgreSQL database user’s username.
Password: Enter the password for the Stitch PostgreSQL database user.
Database: Enter the name of the PostgreSQL database you want to connect to Stitch. Stitch will ‘find’ all databases you give the Stitch user access to - a default database is only used to complete the connection. This is required for PostgreSQL integrations.
Include PostgreSQL schema names in destination tables: Checking this setting will include schema names from the source database in the destination table name - for example:
Stitch loads all selected replicated tables to a single schema, preserving only the table name. If two tables canonicalize to the same name - even if they’re in different source databases or schemas - name collision errors can arise. Checking this setting can prevent these issues.
Note: This setting can not be changed after the integration is saved. Additionally, this setting may create table names that exceed your destination’s limits. For more info, refer to the Database Integration Table Name Collisions guide.
Step 4.2: Define the SSH connection details
If you’re using an SSH tunnel to connect your PostgreSQL database to Stitch, you’ll also need to define the SSH settings. Refer to the Setting up an SSH Tunnel for a database connection guide for assistance with completing these fields.
Click the SSH Tunnel checkbox.
Fill in the fields as follows:
SSH Host: Enter the public IP address or hostname of the server Stitch will SSH into.
SSH Port: Enter the SSH port on your server. (
SSH User: Enter the Stitch Linux (SSH) user’s username.
Step 4.3: Define the SSL connection details
Click the Connect using SSL checkbox if you’re using an SSL connection. Note: The database must support and allow SSL connections for this setting to work correctly.
Step 4.4: Define the Log-based Replication setting
In the Log-based Replication section, you can set this as the integration’s default Replication Method.
When enabled, tables that are set to replicate will use Log-based Incremental Replication by default. If you don’t want a table to use Log-based Incremental Replication, you can change it in the Table Settings page for that table.
If this setting isn’t enabled, you’ll have to select a Replication Method for each table you set to replicate.
Step 4.5: Create a replication schedule
In the Replication Frequency section, you’ll create the integration’s replication schedule. An integration’s replication schedule determines how often Stitch runs a replication job, and the time that job begins.
PostgreSQL integrations support the following replication scheduling methods:
To keep your row usage low, consider setting the integration to replicate less frequently. See the Understanding and Reducing Your Row Usage guide for tips on reducing your usage.
Step 4.6: Save the integration
When finished, click Check and Save.
Stitch will perform a connection test to the PostgreSQL database; if successful, a Success! message will display at the top of the screen. Note: This test may take a few minutes to complete.
Step 5: Select data to replicate
Note: If a replication job is currently in progress, new selections won’t be used until the next job starts.
For PostgreSQL integrations, you can select:
Individual tables and columns
All tables and columns (except views)
Click the tabs to view instructions for each selection method.
- In the Integration Details page, click the Tables to Replicate tab.
- Locate a table you want to replicate.
Click the checkbox next to the table’s name. A blue checkmark means the table is set to replicate.
After you set a table to replicate, a page with the table’s columns will display. De-select columns if needed.
- Next, you’ll define the table’s Replication Method. Click the Table Settings button.
- In the Table Settings page:
Repeat this process for every table you want to replicate.
- Click the Finalize Your Selections button at the bottom of the page to save your data selections.
Important: Before using this feature, note that:
Using the Select All feature will overwrite any previous selections. However, selections aren’t final until Finalize Your Selections is clicked. Clicking Cancel will restore your previous selections.
Log-based Incremental Replication must be enabled and set as the default Replication Method to use the Select All feature.
Refer to the Select All guide for more info about this feature.
- Click into the integration from the Stitch Dashboard page.
Click the Tables to Replicate tab.
Navigate to the table level, selecting any databases and/or schemas that contain tables you want to replicate.
- In the list of tables, click the box next to the Table Names column.
In the menu that displays, click Track AllTables and Fields (Except Views):
- Click the Finalize Your Selections button at the bottom of the page to save your data selections.
Setting a database view to replicate is similar to selecting a table, with a few differences. Refer to the Replicating Database Views guide for detailed instructions.
At a high level, you’ll need to complete the following to select a database view:
Initial and historical replication jobs
After you finish setting up PostgreSQL, its Sync Status may show as Pending on either the Stitch Dashboard or in the Integration Details page.
For a new integration, a Pending status indicates that Stitch is in the process of scheduling the initial replication job for the integration. This may take some time to complete.
Initial replication jobs with Anchor Scheduling
If using Anchor Scheduling, an initial replication job may not kick off immediately. This depends on the selected Replication Frequency and Anchor Time. Refer to the Anchor Scheduling documentation for more information.
Free historical data loads
The first seven days of replication, beginning when data is first replicated, are free. Rows replicated from the new integration during this time won’t count towards your quota. Stitch offers this as a way of testing new integrations, measuring usage, and ensuring historical data volumes don’t quickly consume your quota.
In this section:
- Details about Extraction, including object and data type discovery and selecting data for replication
For every table set to replicate, Stitch will perform the following during Extraction:
During Discovery, Stitch will:
Determining table schemas
During this phase of Discovery, Stitch queries system tables to retrieve metadata about the objects the Stitch database user has access to. This metadata is used to determine which databases, tables, and columns to display in Stitch for replication.
To perform a structure sync, Stitch runs queries on the following tables in the
Refer to the PostgreSQL data types documentation for more info about how PostgreSQL data is typed for selected columns.
During data replication, Stitch will query the selected tables and columns using the Replication Method defined for the table: