MySQL RDS snapshot

Release status Released Supported by Stitch
Availability Free Supported Versions n/a
SSL connections Supported VPN Connections Unsupported
Data selection Tables and columns View Replication Supported
Destination
incompatibilities
None

Connecting MySQL RDS

MySQL RDS Setup Requirements

To set up MySQL RDS in Stitch, you need:

  • Permissions in Amazon Web Services (AWS) that allow you to:

    • Create/manage Security Groups, which is required to whitelist Stitch’s IP addresses.
    • View database details, which is required for retrieving the database’s connection details.
  • The CREATE USER or INSERT privilege (for the mysql database). The CREATE USER privilege is required to create a database user for Stitch.

  • The GRANT OPTION privilege in MySQL RDS. The GRANT OPTION privilege is required to grant the necessary privileges to the Stitch database user.


Step 1: Whitelist Stitch's IP addresses

For Stitch to successfully connect with your RDS instance, you’ll need to add our IP addresses to the appropriate database security group via the AWS management console. To do this, an inbound security rule must be created for each of our IP addresses.

The IP addresses can be added to an existing group or you can create a new one. The important thing is that the group is authorized to access the instance you want to connect to Stitch.

  1. Log into your AWS account.
  2. Navigate to the Security Group Management page, typically Services > Compute > EC2.
  3. Click the Security Groups option, under Network & Security in the menu on the left side of the page.
  4. Click Create Security Group.
  5. In the window that displays, fill in the fields as follows:
    • Security group name: Enter a unique name for the security group. For example: Stitch
    • Description: Enter a description for the security group.
    • VPC: Verify that the selected VPC is the same VPC your database is in.
  6. In the Inbound tab, click Add Rule.
  7. Fill in the fields as follows:
    • Type: Select Custom TCP Rule
    • Port Range: Enter the port your database uses. (3306 by default)
    • CIDR, IP or Security Group, enter one of the IP addresses listed below:

      • 52.23.137.21/32

      • 52.204.223.208/32

      • 52.204.228.32/32

      • 52.204.230.227/32

  8. Add another rule by clicking the Add Rule button.
  9. Repeat steps 6-8 until all the IP addresses above have been added:

  10. When finished, click Create.

Step 2: Retrieve your Stitch Public Key

The Stitch Public Key

The Public Key is used to authorize the Stitch Linux user. If the key isn’t properly installed, Stitch will be unable to access your database.

To retrieve the key:

  1. Sign into your Stitch account.

  2. On the Stitch Dashboard page, click the Add Integration button.

  3. Click the MySQL icon.

  4. When the credentials page displays, click the Encryption Type menu and select the SSH Tunnel option.

  5. The Public Key will display, along with the other SSH fields.

Leave this page open for now - you’ll need it to wrap things up at the end.


Step 3: Create a Stitch Linux user

Note: Anything inside square brackets - [like this] - is something you need to define when running the commands yourself.

  1. To create the new user, run the following commands as root on your Linux server:

    adduser --disabled-password [stitch_username]
    mkdir /home/[stitch_username]/.ssh
    
  2. Next, import the Public Key into authorized_keys. This will ensure the Stitch user has access to the database.

    Copy the entire key into the authorized_keys file by:

    "[PASTE KEY HERE]" >> /home/[stitch_username]/.ssh/authorized_keys
    
  3. Alter the permissions on the /home/[stitch_username] directory to allow access via SSH:

    chown -R [stitch_username]:[stitch_username] /home/[stitch_username]
    chmod -R 700 /home/[stitch_username]/.ssh
    

Step 4: Configure database server settings

Next, you’ll configure your server to use Log-based Incremental Replication, or binlog replication.

Log-based Incremental Replication is a method of replication that reads a database’s binary log files. These files contain information about modifications made to data in a MySQL RDS instance. Log-based Incremental Replication captures all inserts, updates, and deletes made to records during each replication job, and is the most accurate and efficient method of replication.

While Stitch recommends using Log-based Replication to replicate data, it isn’t mandatory. Stitch offers additional Replication Methods for MySQL RDS databases that don’t require defining these settings.

Step 4.1: Configure the database parameter group

  1. From the RDS Dashboard, click Instances on the left side of the page.
  2. Click MySQL RDS instance you want to connect to Stitch. This will open the database’s details page.
  3. Scroll down to the Details section.
  4. In the Configurations column, locate the Parameter group field.
  5. Click the parameter group. This will open the settings page for the parameter group.
  6. Click the Edit parameters button.
  7. Locate the parameters in the list below, and enter the required values into the Values column:

    • binlog_format: ROW

    • binlog_row_image: FULL

    • log_slave_updates: 1

    Note: log_slave_updates is applicable only if you are connecting a read replica to Stitch. If you aren’t connecting a read replica, you don’t have to define this parameter.

    RDS MySQL parameter group page with binlog_format and binlog_row_image parameters highlighted

  8. When finished, click the Save changes button.

In the table below are the names, required values, and descriptions of the server settings you must define.

Setting Value Description
binlog_format ROW

Note: This setting is available on MySQL RDS databases running version 5.6.2 or greater.

Defines the binary logging format. A ROW value enables “event-based” capture, which describes what happens to records in the database. This is necessary to use binlog.

Stitch supports the following event types:

  • INSERT
  • UPDATE
  • DELETE
binlog_row_image FULL

Note: This setting is available on MySQL RDS databases running version 5.6.2 or greater.

Defines how row images are written to the binary log. A FULL value ensures that all columns in a row are logged in the before and after images of a change, enabling Stitch to accurately capture all changes made to a record.

log_slave_updates 1

Indicates whether updates received by a read replica from a master server should be logged to the replica’s own binary log.

Note: This is applicable when using a read replica.

Step 4.2: Define the backup retention period

The backup retention period setting defines the number of days for which automated backups are retained. This ensures that data can still be replicated even if a job is interrupted, there’s database or Stitch downtime, etc.

  1. Navigate back to the Instances page by using the menu on the left side of the page.
  2. Select the instance you’re connecting to Stitch.
  3. Click Instance actions > Modify.
  4. Scroll down to the Backup section.

  5. Set Backup retention period to anything greater than 1 day:

    A backup retention period setting of 1 day for an RDS instance in the AWS console

Step 4.3: Apply parameter changes and reboot the database

  1. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click Continue.
  2. The next page will display a summary of the modifications made to the database.

    In the Scheduling of Modifications section, select the Apply Immediately option.

  3. Click Modify DB Instance to apply the changes.
  4. Navigate to the Instance Details page and locate the Parameter group. Initially, the Parameter group should say applying.

    When it changes to pending-reboot, you can reboot the database and apply the changes.

  5. Scroll up to the top of the page and locate the Instance actions menu.
  6. In this menu, click Reboot.
  7. On the next page, click Reboot to confirm you want to reboot the instance.

Rebooting the instance will take a few minutes. When the status of the parameter group changes to in-sync and the DB instance status (located at the top of the Instance Details page) changes to available, the reboot will be complete:

An "Available" DB instance status for an RDS instance in the AWS console


Step 5: Create a Stitch database user

Next, you’ll create a dedicated database user for Stitch. This will ensure Stitch is visible in any logs or audits, and allow you to maintain your privilege hierarchy.

To create a database user for Stitch, run the following command when logged into MySQL RDS:

CREATE USER '[stitch_username]'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '[password]';
GRANT SELECT, REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO '[stitch_username]';

Replace [password] with a secure password. If using SSH, this can be different than the SSH password.

If you wish to restrict this user from accessing data in specific databases, tables, or columns, you can instead run GRANT queries that only allow access to the data you permit.

See the Privileges list tab for an explanation of why these permissions are required by Stitch.

In the table below are the database user privileges Stitch requires to connect to and replicate data from a MySQL RDS database.

Privilege name Reason for requirement
SELECT

Required to select rows from tables in a database.

REPLICATION CLIENT

Required for binlog replication. Required to use SHOW BINARY LOGS, which determines that a binary log exists.

REPLICATION SLAVE

Required for binlog replication. Required to use SHOW MASTER STATUS, which fetches the current binlog file and position on the server.


Step 6: Define the binlong retention setting

In addition to the backup retention period, you also need to define the binlog retention hours setting. This parameter specifies the number of hours to the database server should retain binary logs.

To specify the number of hours, use the mysql.rds_set_configuration procedure when logged into the MySQL RDS master.

In this example, the logs will be retained for seven days (24 x 7 = 168):

call mysql.rds_set_configuration('binlog retention hours', 168);

We recommend a minimum of three days for the retention period, but strongly recommend seven. Note: The maximum binlog retention hours value for MySQL RDS databases is 168 hours (seven days).


Step 7: Locate RDS connection details in AWS

Next, you’ll retrieve the connection details required to complete the setup in Stitch. This info can be found on the Instance Details page in AWS.

If you don’t still have this page open, click Instances and then the instance you’re connecting to Stitch.

  1. On the Instance Details page, scroll down to the Connect section.
  2. Locate the Endpoint and Port fields, which are highlighted in the image below:

    Amazon RDS Instance Details page with the Endport and Port fields highlighted

Leave this page open for now - you’ll need it to complete the setup in the next step.


Step 8: Connect Stitch

  1. Sign into your Stitch account, if you haven’t already.
  2. On the Stitch Dashboard page, click the Add Integration button.
  3. Click the MySQL icon.
  4. Fill in the fields as follows:

    • Integration Name: Enter a name for the integration. This is the name that will display on the Stitch Dashboard for the integration; it’ll also be used to create the schema in your data warehouse.

      For example, the name “Stitch MySQL RDS” would create a schema called stitch_mysql_rds in the data warehouse. Note: The schema name cannot be changed after the integration is saved.

    • Host (Endpoint): Paste the Endpoint address from the MySQL RDS Details page in AWS into this field. Don’t include the port number, which is appended to the end of the endpoint string - this will cause errors.

    • Port: Enter the port used by the MySQL RDS instance. The default is 3306.

    • Username: Enter the Stitch MySQL RDS database user’s username.

    • Password: Enter the password for the Stitch database user.

    • Database: Optional: Enter the name of the default database Stitch will connect to. Stitch will ‘find’ all databases you give the Stitch user access to - a default database is only used to test and complete the connection.

Enter SSH connection details

If you’re using an SSH tunnel to connect your MySQL RDS database to Stitch, you’ll also need to complete the following:

  1. Click the Encryption Type menu.
  2. Select SSH Tunnel to display the SSH fields.

  3. Fill in the fields as follows:

    • Remote Address: Enter the IP address or hostname of the server Stitch will SSH into.

    • SSH Port: Enter the SSH port on your server. (22 by default)

    • SSH User: Enter the Stitch Linux (SSH) user’s username.

In addition, click the Connect using SSL checkbox if you’re using an SSL connection. Note: The database must support and allow SSL connections for this setting to work correctly.


Step 9: Create a replication schedule

In the Replication Frequency section, you’ll create the integration’s replication schedule. An integration’s replication schedule determines how often Stitch runs a replication job, and the time that job begins.

Stitch offers two methods of creating a replication schedule:

  • Replication Frequency: This method requires selecting the interval you want replication to run for the integration. Start times of replication jobs are based on the start time and duration of the previous job. Refer to the Replication Frequency documentation for more information and examples.
  • Anchor scheduling: Based on the Replication Frequency, or interval, you select, this method “anchors” the start times of this integration’s replication jobs to a time you select to create a predictable schedule. Anchor scheduling is a combination of the Anchor Time and Replication Frequency settings, which must both be defined to use this method. Additionally, note that:

    • A Replication Frequency of at least one hour is required to use anchor scheduling.
    • An initial replication job may not begin immediately after saving the integration, depending on the selected Replication Frequency and Anchor Time. Refer to the Anchor Scheduling documentation for more information.

    • You’ll need to contact support to request using an Anchor Time with this integration.

To help prevent overages, consider setting the integration to replicate less frequently. See the Understanding and Reducing Your Row Usage guide for tips on reducing your usage.


Step 10: Select data to replicate

The last step is to select the tables and columns you want to replicate. When you track a table, you’ll also need to define its Replication Method and, if using Key-based Incremental Replication, its Replication Key.

You can track tables and columns by:

  1. In the Integration Details page, click the Tables to Replicate tab.
  2. Locate a table you want to replicate.
  3. Click the checkbox next to the object’s name. A green checkmark means the object is set to replicate.
  4. If there are child objects, they’ll automatically display and you’ll be prompted to select some.
  5. After you set a table to replicate, the Table Settings page will display. Note: When you track a table, by default all columns will also be tracked.
  6. In the Table Settings page, define the table’s Replication Method and, if using Key-based Incremental Replication, its Replication Key.

  7. Repeat this process for every table you want to replicate.

Initial and historical replication jobs

After you finish setting up MySQL RDS, its Sync Status may show as Pending on either the Stitch Dashboard or in the Integration Details page.

For a new integration, a Pending status indicates that Stitch is in the process of scheduling the initial replication job for the integration. This may take some time to complete.

Free historical data loads

The first seven days of replication, beginning when data is first replicated, are free. Rows replicated from the new integration during this time won’t count towards your quota. Stitch offers this as a way of testing new integrations, measuring usage, and ensuring historical data volumes don’t quickly consume your quota.


Extracting data from MySQL RDS

When you connect a database as an input, Stitch only needs read-only access to the databases, tables, and columns you want to replicate. There are two processes Stitch runs during the Extraction phase of the replication process: a structure sync and a data sync.

Structure syncs

This is the first part of the Extraction process. During this phase, Stitch will detect any changes to the structure of your database. For example: A new column is added to one of the tables you set to replicate in Stitch. Structure syncs are how Stitch identifies the databases, tables, and columns to display in the Stitch app.

Stitch runs the following queries on MySQL RDS databases to perform a structure sync:

  • SHOW DATABASES
  • SHOW TABLES FROM [database_name]
  • SHOW KEYS FROM [table_name]
  • SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES

Data syncs

This is the second part of the Extraction process. During this phase, Stitch extracts data from the source and replicates it. The method Stitch uses is the same for all databases, but differs depending on the Replication Method that each table uses.

The tabs below contain info about the queries Stitch runs during the data syncs for each type of Replication Method supported for MySQL RDS integrations.

Data syncs for tables using Key-based Incremental

Initial (historical) replication jobs

During the initial replication job for a table using Key-based Incremental Replication, Stitch will replicate the table in full by running a SELECT query and read out of the resulting cursor in batches:

  SELECT column_a, column_b <,...>
    FROM table_a
ORDER BY replication_key_column
Ongoing replication jobs

During subsequent jobs, Stitch will use the last saved maximum value of the Replication Key column to identify new and updated data.

Stitch will run the following query and read out of the associated cursor in batches:

  SELECT column_a, column_b <,...>
    FROM table_a
   WHERE replication_key_column >= 'last_maximum_replication_key_value'
ORDER BY replication_key_column

Data syncs for tables using Log-based Incremental

Initial (historical) replication jobs

During the initial replication job for a table using Log-based Incremental Replication, Stitch will use a SELECT query to retrieve all data for the table and then read out of the resulting cursor in batches:

SELECT column_a, column_b <,...>
  FROM table_a
Ongoing replication jobs

During subsequent jobs, Stitch will use the database's binary logs to stream updates.

Stitch will 'bookmark' its position in the binary log at the end of each replication job, allowing it to resume at the correct position during the next extraction.

Data syncs for tables using Full Table

For tables using Full Table Replication, Stitch runs a single query and reads out of the resulting cursor in batches:

SELECT column_a, column_b <,...>
  FROM table_a

This query will be run for each table using Full Table Replication during every replication job, whether it's the initial historical job or a subsequent job.

Recommendations

While we make every effort to ensure the queries that Stitch executes don’t impart significant load on your databases, we still have some recommendations for guaranteeing database performance:

  • Use a replica database instead of connecting directly. We recommend using read replicas in lieu of directly connecting production databases with high availability and performance requirements.
  • Apply indexes to Replication Key columns. We restrict and order our replication queries by this column, so applying an index to the columns you’re using as Replication Keys can improve performance.

Questions? Feedback?

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